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Source Materials

I am working on a project that looks at the origins of college football at public colleges and universities to find out how it was used to turn working class boys into ideal, nineteenth century, American men, so that I can better understand the ideals of masculinity, of the great majority of the American population, at the turn of the 20thcentury.   My goal is to better understand how young, middle and lower class men created their own masculine ideals through the game of college football, especially by studying institutions that drew their student populations from the children of the working class.

My source list follows, but it still very early in my research, so if you have any ideas of other secondary sources I should look at or you know of some Virginia Tech archives outside of Special Collections at VT, than leave a comment and let know.

Secondary Sources–88

Sports in America–15

Bloom, John.  “Muscular Culture:  The Cultural Significance of Sports.”  American Studies; 37 (1996): 149.

Bond, Gregory.  “Too Much Dirty Work:  Race, Manliness, and Baseball in Gilded Age Nebraska.”  Nebraska History; 85 (2004): 172-185.

Darby, Paul. “Emigrants at Play:  Gaelic Games and the Irish Diaspora in Chicago, 1884-1900.”  Sport in History; 26 (2006): 47-63.

*Davies, Richard O.   Sports in American Life:  A History.  Oxford: Wiley & Sons, 2012.

*Gorn, Elliott J.  The Manly Art:  Bare Knuckle Prize Fighting in America.  Ithaca:  Cornell UP, 1986.

*Gorn, Elliott J., and Warren Goldstein.  A Brief History of American Sports.  Chicago: University of Illinois, 1993.

Gorn, Elliott J.  Muhammad Ali:  The People’s Champ.  Urbana:  Illinois UP, 1995.

Gruneau, Richard.  Class, Sports, and Social Development.  Champaign: Human Kinetics Books, 1999.

Guttmann, Allen.  From Ritual to Record:  The Nature of Modern Sports.  New York:  Columbia U.P., 1978.

Guttmann, Allen.  “From Ritual to Record:  A Retrospective Critique.”  Sport History Review; 32 (2001): 2.

Pope, Steven W.  “God, Games, and National Glory:  Thanksgiving and the Ritual of Sport in American Culture.”  International Journal of the History of Sport;  10 (1993):  242-249.

Pope, Steven W.  “An army of Athletes:  Playing Fields, Battlefields, and the American Military Sporting Experience.”  Journal of Military History;  59 (1995):  435-456.

Pronger, Brian.  The Arena of Masculinity:  Sports, Homosexuality, and the Meaning of Sex.  New York:  St. Martin’s Press, 1990.

Riess, Steven A. Ed.  Major Problems in American Sport History.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Sumner, Jim L.  “The State Fair and the Development of Modern Sports in Late Nineteenth Century North Carolina.”  Journal of Sport History;  15 (1988):  138-150.


Barnett, LeRoy.  “When Bands of Iron Brought Fans to the Gridiron.”  Michigan History;  92 (2008): 40-45.

Beld, Gordon G.  “For the Love of the Game.”  Michigan History;  88 (2004): 28-36.

Cunningham, John T.  “Not a Coward on Either Side.”  New Jersey History;  96 (1978): 99-104.

Demas, Lane.  “Beyond Jackie Robinson:  Racial Integration in American College Football and New Directions in Sport History.”  History Compass; 5 (2007): 675-690.

Doyle, Andrew.  “Foolish and Useless Sport:  The Southern Evangelical Crusade Against Intercollegiate Football.”  Journal of Sport History; 24 (1997): 317-340.

Dyreson, Mark.  “Reading Football History:  New Vistas in the Landscape of American Sport.”  Journal of Sport History; 29 (2002): 202-220.

Fink, Robert Christopher.  “Black College Football in Texas.”  Dissertation Abstracts international;  64 (2004): 3798.

Friedman, Dick.  “The Football Question.”  Yale Alumni Magazine; 38 (1974): 15-18.

Gems, Gerald R.  “The Construction, Negotiation, and Transformation of Racial Identity in American Football.”  American Indian Culture and Research Journal:  22 (1998):  131-150.

Hamer, Fritz.  “Origins and Development of College Football in South Carolina, 1889-1930.”  Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association; 2010: 43-56.

McDonald, David.  “Football:  The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession.”  History of Education Quarterly;  43 (2003):  623.

McQuilkin, Scott.  “Brutality in Football and the Creation of the NCAA:  A Codified Moral Compass in Progressive America.”  Sports History Review; 33 (2002): 1.

Meyers, Christopher C.  “’Unrelenting War on Football’: The Death of Richard Von Gammon and the Attempt to Ban Football in Georgia.” Georgia Historical Quarterly; 93 (2009): 388-407.

North, E. Lee.  “Pennsylvania gridiron:  Washington and Jefferson College’s First Century of Football.”  Pennslvania Heritage; 16 (1990): 4-9.

Oriard, Michael.  Reading Football:  How the Popular Press Created a Modern Spectacle.  Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1993.

Park, Roberta J.  “Mended or Ended?  Football Injuries and the British and American Medical Press, 1870-1910.”  International Journal of the History of Sport;  18 (2001): 110-133.

Sherwood, James E.  Nebraska Football:  The Coaches, the Players, the Experience.  Lincoln: Nebraska UP, 1987.

Smith, Ronald A.  “Intercollegiate Athletics/Football History at the Dawn of a New Century.”  Journal of Sport History; 29 (2002): 229-239.

Stewart, Bruce K. “American Football.” American History; 30 (1995): 24.

Sumner, Jim L. “The North Carolina Inter-Collegiate Football Association:  The Beginnings of College Football in North Carolina.”  North Carolina Historical Review; 65 (1988): 263-286.

Sumner, Jim L.  “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894.”  Journal of Sport History; 17 (1990): 5-20.

Walter, Jarrett.  “100 Years of College Football.”  Mankind; 2 (1969): 66.

Watson, Bruce.  “It’s More Than Just a Game.”  Smithsonian; 30 (1999): 142-160.

Watterson III, John Sayle.  “Political Football:  Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and the Gridiron Reform Movement.”  Presidential Studies Quarterly; 25 (1995):  555-564.

Watterson III, John Sayle.  College Football:  History, Spectacle, Controversy. Baltimore:  Johns Hopkins, 2000.

Watterson III, John S.  “Out of Baseball’s Shadow:  The Paradox of College Football Scholarship.”  Journal of Sport History;  29 (2002): 221-228.

Westy, David L. and Allen Sack.  “The Commercialization and Functional Rationalization of College Football.”  Journal of Higher Education; 47 (1976): 625-647.


Bederman, Gail.  Manliness and Civilization:  A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880-1917.  Chicago: Chicago UP, 1995.

Beneke, Timothy.  Proving Manhood:  Reflections on Men and Sexism.  Berkeley: U. of California, 1997.

Blanchard, Mary Warner.  “American Manhood and the Rhetoric of War.” Diplomatic History; 24 (2000): 661.

Curtis, Bruce.  “The Wimp Factor.”  American Heritage; 40 (1989): 40.

Franklin II, Clyde W.  The Changing Definition of Masculinity.  New York: Plenum Press, 1984.

Friend, Craig Thompson and Lorri Glover, Ed.  Southern Manhood:  Perspectives on Masculinity in the Old South.  Athens:  Georgia U.P., 2004.

Griffith, R. Marie.  “Apostles of Abstinence:  Fasting and Masculinity during the Progressive Era.”  American Quarterly; 52 (2000):  599.

*Hoganson, Kristin L.  Fighting for American Manhood:  How Gender Politics Provoked the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars.  New Haven:  Yale, 1998.

Kimmel, Michael S.  The History of Men:  Essays on the History of American and british Masculinities.  Albany:  SUNY Press, 2005.

*Kimmel, Michael S.  Manhood in America:  A Cultural History.  New York:  Oxford, 2006.

McKay, Jim and Michael A. Messner, and Don Sabo.  Masculinities, Gender Relations, and Sport.  London: Sage Publications, 2000.

Robyn Muncy, “Trustbusting and White Manhood in America, 1898-1914,” American Studies 38 (Fall 1997), 21-42.

Park, Roberta.  “Muscles, Symmetry and Action:  Do You Measure Up?  Defining Masculinity in Britain and America from the 1860s to the Early 1900s.” The International Journal of the History of Sport; 22 (2005): 365

Pochmara, Anna.  “White Man’s Burden—The Politics of Hegemonic Masculinity in American Culture.” The Americanist; 23 (2006): 103.

*David Pugh, Sons of Liberty: The Masculine Mind in Nineteenth-Century America (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983).

Putney, Clifford.  Muscular Christianity:  Manhood and sports in Protestant America, 1880-1920.  Cambridge: Harvard, 2001.

Tap, Bruce.  “Inevitability, Masculinity, and the American Military Tradition:  The Committee on the Conduct of the War Investigates the American Civil War.” American Nineteenth Century History;  5 (2004): 19-46.

Townsend, Kim.  Manhood at Harvard:  William James and Others.  New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1996.

Windholz, Anne M. “An Emigrant and a Gentleman:  Imperial Masculinity, British Magazines, and the Colony that got Away.” Victorian Studies; 42 (2000): 631.


Borish, Linda J.  “The Robust Woman and the Muscular Christian:  Catharine beecher, Thomas Higginson, and their Vision of American Society, Health and Physical Activities.”  International Journal of the History of Sport; 4 (1987): 139-154.

Clinton, Catherine and Nina Silber Ed.  Battle Scars:  Gender and Sexuality in the American Civil War.  Oxford: Oxford, 2006.

*Ditz, Toby L. “The New Men’s History and the Peculiar Absence of Gendered Power: Some Remedies from Early American Gender History.” Gender and History 16.1 (April 2004): 1-35.

Epstein, Karen.  “Sameness or Difference?  Class, Gender, sport, The WDNAAF and the NCAA/NAAF.”  The International Journal of the History of Sport; 9; (1992): 280.

Messner, Michael A. and Donald F. Sabo.  Sport, Men, and the Gender Order: Critical Feminist Perspectives.  Champaign: Human Kinetic Books, 1990.

*Joanne Meyerowitz, “A History of Gender,” American Historical Review 113.5 (December 2008) 1346-1356.

Park, Roberta.  “Sport, Gender, and Society in a Transatlantic Victorian Perspective.”  The International Journal of the History of Sport; 24 (2007): 1570.

Rishe, Patrick James.  “Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.”  Social Science Quarterly; 80 (1999): 702-717.

* Scott, Joan Wallach. “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91.5 (December 1986) 1053-1075.

Struna, Nancy.  “The Economic and Ideological Grounds for the Gendering of Sport in Early America.”  Stadion; 26 (2000): 3.

*LeeAnn Whites, The Civil War as a Crisis in Gender: Augusta, Georgia, 1860- 1890 (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1995).

Higher Education–17

Abbott, Carl.  “College Athletic Conferences and American Regions.”  Journal of American Studies;  24 (1990):  211-222.

Atcheson, Wayne.  “The 41 Year Time-Out.”  Alabama Heritage;  26 (1992):  10-20.

Bacon, John U.  “Building a Sports Empire.” Michigan History;  84 (2000): 28-33.

Lawrence, George B.  “The Early Years of Collegiate Football:  A study of American Institutional and Social Change.”  Masters Abstracts International;  45 (2007): 1.

Lawson, Hal A. and Alan G. Ingham.  “Conflicting Ideologies Concerning the University and Intercollegiate Athletics:  Harper and Hutchins at Chicago, 1892-1940.”  Journal of Sport History;  7 (1980): 37-67.

Leslie, w. Bruce.  “Localism, Denominationalism, and Institutional Strategies in Urbanizing America:  Three Pennsylvania Colleges, 1870-1915.”  History of Education Quarterly;  16 (1977):  235-256.

McDonald, David.  “Sports and American Education.”  History of Education Quarterly;  43 (2003): 623-630.

Nehls, Christopher C.  “Flag Waving Wahoos.”  Virginia Magazine of History and Biography;  110 (2002):  461-490.

Norwood, Stephen H.  “The Student as Strikebreaker:  College Youth and the Crisis of Masculinity in the Early Twentieth Century.” Journal of Social History; 28 (1994): 331-350.

Pearlman, Michael.  “To Make the University Safe for Morality:  Higher Education, Football, and Military Training from the 1890s Through the 1920s.”  Canadian Review of American Studies;  12 (1981):  37-56.

Sears, Hal D. “ The Moral Threat of Intercollegiate Sports:  An 1893 Poll of Ten College Presidents, and the End of ‘The Champion Football Team of the Great West.’“  Journal of Sport History; 19 (1992): 211-226.

Smith, Ronald A.  “Commercialized Intercollegiate Athletics and the 1903 Harvard Stadium.”  New England Quarterly; 78 (2005): 26-48.

Stanley, Gregory Kent.  “Not Conducive to the Best Interests of this Institution:  President James Kennedy Patterson, The Board of Trustees, and University of Kentucky Athletics, 1890-1910.”  Filson Club History Quarterly; 69 (1995): 159-70.

Thelin, John R.  “Looking for the Lone Star Legacy:  Higher Education in Texas.”  History of Education Quarterly;  17 (1977):  221-229.

Thelin, John R. and Lawrence L. Wiseman.  The Old College Try:  Balancing Athletics and Academics in Higher Education.  Report No. 4.  Washington, D.C.:  School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University, 1989.

Thelin, Joh R.  A History of American Higher Education.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Watterson III, John S.  “The Death of Archer Christian:  College Presidents and the Reform of College Football.”  Journal of Sport History; 22 (1995): 149-167.

Primary Sources—21

Books and Archives–11

*The Bugle.  Blacksburg, Va.: Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1895-present.

Camp, Walter.  American Football.  New York:  Harper and Bros., 1891.

Camp, Walter.  Walter Camp’s Book of College Sports.  New York:  Century, 1893.

Chadwick, Lester.  A Quarterback’s Pluck:  A story of College Football.  New York:  Cupples & Leon, 1910.

Chadwick, Lester.  The Winning Touchdown:  A Story of College Football.  New York:  Cupples & Leon, 1911.

*Corks and Curls.  Charlottesville, VA:  University of Virginia, 1887-2004.

*Johnson, Owen M.  Stover at Yale.  Boston:  Little, Brown, and Company, 1911.

Lewis, William Henry.  A Primer of College Football.  New York:  Harper  Bros., 1896.

Stagg, Amos Alonzo and Henry Llewellyn Williams.  A Scientific and Practical Treatise on American Football for Schools and Colleges.  Hartford:  Press of the Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co., 1893.

*Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  C. Hunter Carpenter Papers.  Archival material; Blacksburg, VA.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.  University Archives.  Archival material; Blacksburg, VA.


*The Cadet.  Lexington, Va:  Virginia Military Institute, 1907-1934.

The Cavalier Daily.  Charlottesville, VA:  University of Virginia, 1890-present.

The Daily Progress.  Charlottesville, VA:  J.H. Lindsay. 1982-present.

The Roanoke Times.  Roanoke, VA: Roanoke Pub. Co., 1897-present.

The Sun.  Baltimore, MD:  A.S. Abell Co., 1837-2008.

The Tar Heel.  Chapel Hill:  University Athletic Association, 1893-1929.

The Times.  Richmond, VA: Times Co., 1890-1903.

The Times Dispatch.  Richmond, VA:  Times-Dispatch Co., 1903-1914.

*The Virginia Tech.  Blacksburg, VA:  Virginia Polytechnic Institute Athletic Department, 1903-1935.

*The Washington Post.  Washington DC: Washington Post Co., 1877-1954.


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